1. General information
Algae is the official journal of the Korean Society of Phycology (KSP). Authors who wish to submit a manuscript are advised to carefully read the aims and scope section of this journal. Manuscripts should be prepared according to the following instructions before submission to Algae. For issues not addressed in these instructions, authors are referred to the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (a joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA; http://doaj.org/bestpractice) unless otherwise noted below.
2. Copyright and Creative Commons Attribution license
Once a manuscript is published, it becomes the property of the journal. KSP owns the copyright to all published materials. The Creative Commons Attribution License, which is available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, is also in effect.
3. Research and publication ethics
The journal adheres to the ethical guidelines for research and publication as described in the Guidelines on Good Publication (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines).
Authorship credit should be based on the following criteria:
- ● Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data
- ● Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content
- ● Final approval of the version to be published
- ● Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved
Every author should satisfy all of these four conditions. After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes in authorship (such as adding or deleting authors, or rearranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the concerned authors. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Additionally, every author must complete a copyright assignment.
Corresponding author and first author: Algae does not allow "equal contribution" statements for articles. We assume that all authors have made substantial equal contributions. However, it is allowed to have more than one corresponding author. Only one author, however, should correspond with the editorial office and readers regarding the article.
Correction of authorship after publication: Algae will not correct authorship after publication unless an error has been made by the editorial staff. Authorship may be changed before publication but after submission, if all authors involved with the manuscript request a correction.
2) Originality, Plagiarism, and Duplicate Publication
Manuscripts submitted for publication must not have been previously published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other scientific journal without permission from the Editorial Board. Upon submission, manuscripts are screened through Similarity Check for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication. If such issues are detected, the manuscripts may be rejected, and the authors and their institutions will be informed and announced in the journal. Additionally, the authors may face penalties.
Authors must obtain a letter of permission for any previously published material, including text, figures, and tables. It is the author's responsibility to request permission from the publisher for any reproduced material.
3) Conflict of Interest Statement
The corresponding author is responsible for informing the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors' interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Additionally, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.
4) Animal Right
Studies involving animals should be conducted according to internationally accepted standards and are expected to comply with the three Rs principle (Replace, Reduce, Refine). Algae endorses the ARRIVE guidelines (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) for reporting experiments involving live animals. Authors are encouraged to use the ARRIVE checklist and to submit it with manuscripts involving animal research. Algae's editors reserve the right to request this checklist.
Editors may request additional documentation, such as approval forms and/or relevant citations from the literature, if the experimental details described in a study deviate from common practices in animal research. Additionally, editors may reject a manuscript if the research involves protocols that are inconsistent with commonly accepted norms for animal welfare, regardless of ethics committee approval or previously published articles using such protocols.
5) Process for Managing Research and Publication Misconduct
When a journal encounters suspected cases of research and publication misconduct, such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author's idea or data, or complaints against editors, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The Editorial Board will conduct the discussion and make decisions regarding the suspected cases.
6) Process for Handling Cases Requiring Corrections, Retractions, and Editorial Expressions of Concern
Cases that require editorial expressions of concern or retraction shall follow the COPE flowcharts available at: http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts.
Honest errors are a natural part of scientific publishing and require a correction to be published once detected. Corrections are necessary for errors of fact. The minimum standards for publishing a correction notice are as follows:
- ● A correction notice should be published as soon as possible, detailing changes made and citing the original publication. This notice should be included on both an electronic and numbered print page and be listed in an electronic or print Table of Contents to ensure proper indexing.
- ● A new version of the article should be posted, detailing the changes made from the original version and the date(s) on which the changes were made. This new version should be available through CrossMark.
- ● All prior versions of the article should be archived and made directly accessible to readers.
- ● Previous electronic versions should prominently note that there are more recent versions of the article through CrossMark.
7) Editorial Responsibilities
The Editorial Board is committed to continuously monitoring and safeguarding publication ethics. This includes guidelines for retracting articles, maintaining the integrity of the academic record, precluding business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when necessary, as well as excluding plagiarism and fraudulent data.
The editors have the following responsibilities: the responsibility and authority to reject or accept articles, avoiding any conflict of interest with respect to the articles they reject or accept, promoting the publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found, and preserving the anonymity of reviewers.
4. Author qualifications, language requirement, and reporting guideline
1) Author Qualifications
If the scope of a manuscript is appropriate, any researcher worldwide can submit it for consideration.
Manuscripts must be submitted in clear and concise scientific English.
3) Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs
Research reports often omit important information. Therefore, reporting guidelines have been developed for various study designs, which some journals may require authors to follow. It is recommended that authors also refer to the reporting guidelines applicable to their specific research design. The EQUATOR Network (http://www.equator-network.org/home/) is a reliable source of reporting guidelines.
5. Submission and peer review process
To submit a manuscript, please use the e-submission system available at Online Manuscript Submission (https://submit.e-algae.org/). If any authors encounter difficulties with the e-submission system, they may instead submit their manuscript to email@example.com via the corresponding author.
2) Peer Review Process
Algae reviews all manuscripts received. The manuscript is first reviewed for its format and adherence to the aims and scope of the journal. If the manuscript meets these two criteria, it is checked for plagiarism or duplicate publication using Similarity Check. After confirming the result, it is sent to experts in the field with relevant knowledge. Assuming the manuscript is sent to reviewers, Algae waits to receive opinions from at least two reviewers. If deemed necessary, a review of statistics may also be requested. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its scientific significance. Acceptance of the manuscript is decided based on the critiques and recommended decision of the reviewers. An initial decision will normally be made within 5 weeks of receiving the manuscript, and the reviewers’ comments are sent to the corresponding author by email. The corresponding author must indicate the alterations that have been made in response to the reviewers’ comments item by item. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 4 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. If a further revision period is required, the author should contact the Editor-in-Chief (EIC). A final decision on acceptance/rejection for publication is then forwarded to the corresponding author by the EIC.
3) Peer Review Process for Handling Submissions from Editors, Employees, or Members of the Editorial board
All manuscripts, whether submitted by editors, employees, or members of the editorial board, are processed in the same manner as other unsolicited manuscripts. During the review process, submitters will not engage in the selection of reviewers or the decision-making process. Editors will not handle their own manuscripts, even if they are commissioned.
6. Manuscript preparation
1) General Requirements
- ● The main document containing manuscript text and tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word (docx) file format.
- ● The manuscript should be double spaced and printed on 21.6 × 27.9 cm (letter size) or 21.0 × 29.7 cm (A4) paper with 3.0 cm margins at the top, bottom, right, and left.
- ● All manuscript pages should be numbered consecutively at the bottom, starting with the abstract as page 1.
- ● The authors should express all measurements using International System (SI) units, with some exceptions such as seconds, mmHg, or °C.
- ● Only standard abbreviations should be used. Avoid using abbreviations in the manuscript title. When first used in the text, abbreviations should be spelled out, for example, "carbon dioxide removal (CDR)." The use of abbreviations should be minimized.
- ● Provide the names and locations (city, state, and country only) of manufacturers.
Manuscript preparation differs according to the publication type, which includes research articles, reviews, research notes, editorials, correspondence, and book reviews. Other types may also be negotiable with the EIC.
2) Research Articles
Research articles are reports of basic investigations. The manuscript for a research article should be organized in the following sequence: title page, abstract and keywords, main text (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion), Acknowledgments, Conflicts of interest, References, Tables, Figure legends, and Figures. The figures should be submitted as separate files. The maximum length is 6,000 words of text, not including the abstract, tables, figures, and references.
- ● Title page: The title page should include the following items: 1) the manuscript title, 2) author list, 3) each author’s affiliation, 4) the corresponding author’s name, e-mail address, and international telephone/fax numbers, 5) when applicable, a list of where and when the study has been presented in part elsewhere, and 6) a running title of fewer than 50 characters. If an organism's name is used in the title, it is necessary to provide an indication of its taxonomic position. Nomenclatural authorities should be used in titles only when proposing nomenclatural changes.
- ● Abstract, Keywords, and abbreviations: The abstract should be a concise paragraph of fewer than 250 words. It should include the purpose, methods, results, and conclusion, and should not use abbreviations or references. After the abstract, list 5 to 8 Keywords (arranged alphabetically and separated by semicolons), using American spelling. Avoid using general or plural terms, as well as multiple concepts (such as "and" or "of"). Additionally, an abbreviations section may be included following the keywords. List each abbreviation, followed by its full meaning (e.g., DIN, dissolved inorganic nitrogen). Common abbreviations (e.g., DNA) do not require listing. The abbreviation should be spelled out at its first mention in the main text. Thereafter, only the abbreviation/acronym may be used.
- ● Introduction: The purpose of the investigation, including relevant background information, should be briefly described. Conclusions should not be included in the introduction.
- ● Materials and Methods: The research plan, materials (or subjects), and methods used should be described in that order. When describing methods that have already been published, provide a reference indicating the source, and only describe relevant modifications. When possible, provide detailed sources for any materials used. For cultures, indicate the strain or clone number and its source. For study sites, provide latitudes and longitudes. Please provide the names, locations (company name, city, state, and country), and model numbers of equipment and software manufacturers used. Please use metric units in the International System of Units (SI) style, such as μmol photons m–2 s–1 and μg L–1. When describing laboratory procedures, you may use the terms liter (abbreviated to L) and milliliter (mL); do not use dots or full stops between parts of these terms. Additionally, please describe the methods of statistical analysis and the criteria for statistical significance.
- ● Results: The results should be presented in a logical sequence and include text, tables, and figures. Tables of studied specimens or used gene sequences should be placed in supplementary materials. Photographs should only be included if necessary to illustrate results. To enable assessment of replicates of the experiments, include statistical analyses or other indicators of variance. Any resulting parameters with statistical significance should have their p-values provided, and repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms should be avoided. For new taxa, names must be immediately followed by the Latin description or diagnosis using only essential characters, and citation of the holotype. For new combinations, the basionyms should be cited in full. The results should not include material that belongs in the discussion section.
- ● Discussion: This section should interpret the observations related to the results of the research and other related work for the readers. It is important to emphasize any new and significant observations, rather than just repeating the contents of the results. Additionally, the proposed opinion's implications should be explained along with its limitations, as well as being connected to the purpose of the research within the limits of the research results. Finally, a concluding paragraph should summarize the results and their meaning. If results and discussion are combined, a Conclusion should be added.
- ● ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID): We encourage you to link your account to your ORCID ID, a unique identifier that facilitates the correct attribution of your publications to you. To learn more about ORCID or to obtain an ORCID ID, visit their website at http://orcid.org.
- ● Conflict of Interest: Any potential conflict of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data, such as financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academically related issues, must be stated.
- ● Acknowledgements: This section is dedicated to acknowledging all individuals who have made substantial contributions to the study, but who do not meet the criteria for authorship. Additionally, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated here.
- ● Appendix: Supplementary information such as computer programs that are not appropriate for inclusion in the main text may be listed in the Appendix and printed.
- ● Supplementary Materials: If there are any supplementary materials that can help readers better understand the content or if there is too much data to include in the main text, it can be placed as supplementary data. This section can include not only text, but also figures, tables, maps, photographs, audio or video files, and data files. These materials are only available online.
- ● References: In the text, references for single-author, two-author, and more than two-author works should be given in chronological order in parentheses. For example (Kim 1919, Lee and Kang 1986, Park et al. 2021a, 2021b). In the references section, list the references alphabetically, with multiple references by the same author(s) arranged chronologically. If there are six or fewer authors, list all of them. If there are more than six authors, list the first three authors followed by "et al." If a reference has a digital object identifier (DOI), provide it. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. The number of references is limited to 60 for research articles.
- ○ Journal articles
- Kim, K. H. & Lee, I. K. 2000. Mixed-phase reproduction in Antithamnion sparsum Tokida (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) from Korea. Algae 15:183–193.
- Mann, H., Mann, S. & Fyfe, W. S. 1987. Aragonite crystals in Spirogyra sp. (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol. 23:506–509. doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.1987.tb02539.x
- ○ Books and book chapters
- van den Hoek, C., Mann, D. G. & Jahns, H. M. 1995. Algae: an introduction to phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 623 pp.
- Sheath, R. G. & Hambrook, J. A. 1990. Freshwater ecology. In Cole, K. M. & Sheath, R. G. (Eds.) Biology of the Red Algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 423–453.
- ○ Conference papers
- Conover, J. T. & Sieburth, J. McN. 1966. Effect of tannins excreted from Phaeophyta on planktonic animal survival in tide pools. In Young, E. G. & McLachlan, J. L. (Eds.) Proc. 5th Int. Seaweed Symp., Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 99–100.
- ○ Online sources
- Guiry, M. D. & Guiry, G. M. 2022. Algae Base. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Available from: http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed Oct 1, 2022.
- ○ Dissertations
- Boo, S. M. 1985. A systematic study on six tribes of Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales) in Korea. Ph.D. dissertation, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 446 pp.
- ● Tables: Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text. Each table should have a concise title that describes its content so that a reader can understand it without referring to the text. Each table must be simple and typed on a separate page with its heading above it. Explanatory text should be placed in footnotes below the table, not included in the heading. All nonstandard abbreviations should be explained in the footnotes, which should be indicated using a, b, c, etc. Statistical measures such as SD or SE should be identified. Vertical and horizontal rules between entries should be omitted.
- ● Figures and Legends for Illustrations: Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited. Each figure should be uploaded as a single image file in either uncompressed EPS, TIFF, PSD, JPEG, or PPT format, with a resolution of over 600 dots per inch (dpi) or 3 million pixels (less than 6 megabytes). Written permission must be obtained for the use of all previously published illustrations, and copies of permission letters should be included. In the case of multiple prints bearing the same number, English letters should be used after the numerals to indicate the correct order (for example, Fig. 1A; Fig. 2B & C).
Reviews are invited by the editor and should provide comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They should be organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, main text (including Introduction, text, and Conclusion), conflict of interest statement, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figure legends, and Figures. The abstract should be unstructured and no more than 200 words in length. The length of the text (excluding references, tables, and figures) should not exceed 3,000 words. The number of references is limited to 50.
4) Research Notes
Research notes are not full research articles. Rather, they are discussion notes aimed at advancing a new idea, theoretical perspective, research program, or methodological approach in organization studies. If a manuscript is less than 2,000 words (excluding references, tables, and figures), the editor may classify it as a research note. The notes should be organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, main text (including introduction, text, and conclusion), conflict of interest statement, acknowledgements, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. An unstructured abstract of 200 words maximum should be included. The length of the text, excluding references, tables, and figures should not exceed 2,500 words. The number of references is limited to 25.
The editor invites comments on recent articles, and analyzes current events and issues to provide objective viewpoints. Editorials aim for balance and can cover research, insights, and debates in all fields. They should not exceed 1,000 words (excluding references, tables, and figures). The number of references should not exceed 10, and a maximum of 3 figures (including tables) is allowed.
Correspondence, such as letters to the editor, can be in response to a published article or a standalone piece expressing an opinion. The length of correspondence should not exceed 1,000 words of text and 10 references.
Regarding a published article, if this correspondence is a response, the EIC may invite the authors of the article to write a Correspondence Reply. Author replies must not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
7) Book Reviews
Book reviews are solicited by the editor to cover recently published books in the field of journal publication. The format is the same as that of Editorials.
8) Video Clips
Video clips can be submitted for placement on the journal website. All videos are subject to peer review and must be sent directly to the editor by email. A video file submitted for publication consideration should be complete and in its final format, with as high a resolution as possible. Any editing of the video will be the author's responsibility. Algae accepts all types of video files, provided they do not exceed 30 MB and are no longer than 5 minutes. However, Quicktime, AVI, MPEG, MP4, and RealMedia file formats are recommended. A legend to accompany the video should be double-spaced in a separate file. After acceptance of the main article, all video file copyrights are automatically transferred to Algae.
9) Commissioned or Unsolicited Manuscripts
Unsolicited manuscripts of research articles, reviews, research notes, and correspondence can be submitted. All other publication types are commissioned or invited by the Editorial Board.
Table 1 shows the recommended maximum manuscript lengths according to publication type. It's important to note that these requirements are negotiable with the editor.
Table 1. Recommended maximums for articles submitted to Algae
|Type of article
||Tables & figures
||30 MB, 5 min
aMaximum number of words does not include the abstract, references, tables, or figure legends.
7. Final preparation for publication
1) Final Version
After a paper has been accepted for publication, the author(s) should submit the final version of the manuscript. The names and affiliations of the authors should be double-checked. If the originally submitted image files were of poor resolution, higher resolution image files should be submitted at this time. Color images must be created as CMYK files. The electronic original should be sent with appropriate labeling and arrows.
The EPS, TIFF, Adobe Photoshop (PSD), JPEG, and PPT formats are preferred for submission of digital files of photographic images. Symbols (e.g., circles, triangles, squares), letters (e.g., words, abbreviations), and numbers should be large enough to be legible on reduction to the journal’s column widths. All of the symbols must be defined in the figure caption. If the symbols are too complex to appear in the caption, they should appear on the illustration itself, within the area of the graph or diagram, not to the side.
If references, tables, or figures are moved, added, or deleted during the revision process, they should be renumbered to reflect such changes so that all tables, references, and figures are cited in numeric order.
2) Manuscript Corrections
The manuscript editor may make corrections to the manuscript to ensure it meets the standard publication format prior to publication. If the manuscript editor contacts the author(s) for revisions, the author(s) must respond within 2 days. If the response is delayed, the publication of the manuscript may be postponed until the next issue.
3) Galley Proof
The author(s) will receive the final version of the manuscript as a PDF file. Upon receipt, within 2 days, the editorial office (or printing office) must be notified of any errors found in the file. Any errors found after this time are the responsibility of the author(s) and will have to be corrected as an erratum.
8. Page charges or article processing charges
ALGAE journal assesses page charges or article processing charges for each paper published to help cover publishing costs. Payment of page charges is not a condition for manuscript acceptance. Authors are responsible for page charges for each paper accepted for publication. The rate is $30–$100 per printed page, except for pages with color art, which incur a total page charges of over $600 unless waived by the EIC. For more information, visit the ALGAE website at https://www.e-algae.org/authors/pages_charge.php.
NOTICE: These author instructions will be applied beginning with the March 2023 issue.