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ALGAE > Volume 29(4); 2014 > Article
ALGAE 2014;29(4): 311-319. doi: https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2014.29.4.311
Biocide sodium hypochlorite decreases pigment production and induces oxidative damage in the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides
Vinitha Ebenezer1 and Jang-Seu Ki1,*

1Department of Life Science, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743, Korea
*Corresponding Author  Email: kijs@smu.ac.kr
ABSTRACT
The biocide sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used for controlling algal growth, and this application can be extended to marine environments as well. This study evaluates the biocidal efficiency and cellular toxicity of NaOCl on the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, with emphasis on pigment production and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test organism showed dose-dependent decrease in growth rate on exposure to NaOCl, and the 72 h EC50 was measured to be 0.584 mg L-1. NaOCl significantly decreased pigment levels and chlorophyll autofluorescence intensity, indicating possible detrimental effects on the photosystem of C. polykrikoides. Moreover, it significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, suggesting the production of reactive oxygen species in the cells. These data indicate that NaOCl exerted deleterious effects on the photosynthetic machinery and induced oxidative damage in the dinoflagellate and this biocide could be effectively used for the control of algal blooms.
Key words: antioxidant enzyme activity; chlorophyll autofluorescence; Cochlodinium polykrikoides; harmful algal blooms; sodium hypochlorite


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