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Algae > Volume 7(2); 1992 > Article
Algae 1992;7(2): 281-318.
Genetics and Breeding of Cultivated Seaweeds
Mohsin U. Patwarty, John P. van der Meer
NRC Institute for Marine Bioscienes
Several seaweeds are used for food, phycocolloids, fertilizer and industrial chemicals. Much of the harvest comes from wild populations, but a few species are also cultivated on a significant scale, mostly in Asia and South America. The total annual global production of seaweeds from cultivation is approximately 3.0 × 10 super(6) tonnes (wet weight), valued at about $US 6.0 × 10 super(9). The breeding, has contributed substantially towards achieving this level of commercial production. This review summarizes much of the information available for the cultivated species, which are essentially all contained within the genera Chondrus, Eucheuma, Gelidium, Gracilaria, Laminaria, Porphyra and Undaria. For each group, data are summarized for chromosomes, sex and phase determination, qualitative and quantitative genetics and genetic engineering research, the latter including studies on protoplast isolation and regeneration, tissue culture, and molecular genetics.
Key words: Chondrus, Eucheuma, Gelidium, Gracilaria, Laminaria, Porphyra, Undaria, chromosomes, DNA, genetics, genetics engineering hybridization, mutant, protoplast, tissue culture

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