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Algae > Volume 29(1); 2014 > Article
Algae 2014;29(1): 35-45. doi: https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2014.29.1.035
Growth and nutrient uptake by Palmaria palmata integrated with Atlantic halibut in a land-based aquaculture system
Peter Corey1, Jang K. Kim2,3,*, Jim Duston3 and David J. Garbary4

1Scotian Halibut Ltd., Wood’s Harbour, NS B0W 2E0, Canada
2Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, One University Place, Stamford, CT 06901, USA
3Department of Plant and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
4Department of Biology, St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, NS B2G 2W5, Canada
*Corresponding Author  Email: jang.kim@uconn.edu
Palmaria palmata was integrated with Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus on a commercial farm for one year starting in November, with a temperature range of 0.4 to 19.1°C. The seaweed was grown in nine plastic mesh cages (each 1.25 m3 volume) suspended in a concrete sump tank (46 m3) in each of three recirculating systems. Two tanks received effluent water from tanks stocked with halibut, and the third received ambient seawater serving as a control. Thalli were tumbled by continuous aeration, and held under a constant photoperiod of 16 : 8 (L : D). Palmaria stocking density was 2.95 kg m-3 initially, increasing to 9.85 kg m-3 after a year. Specific growth rate was highest from April to June (8.0 to 9.0°C), 1.1% d-1 in the halibut effluent and 0.8% d-1 in the control, but declined to zero or less than zero above 14°C. Total tissue nitrogen of Palmaria in effluent water was 4.2 to 4.4% DW from January to October, whereas tissue N in the control system declined to 3.0-3.6% DW from April to October. Tissue carbon was independent of seawater source at 39.9% DW. Estimated tank space required by Palmaria for 50% removal of the nitrogen excreted by 100 t of halibut during winter is about 29,000 to 38,000 m2, ten times the area required for halibut culture. Fifty percent removal of carbon from the same system requires 7,200 to 9,800 m2 cultivation area. Integration of P. palmata with Atlantic halibut is feasible below 10°C, but is impractical during summer months due to disintegration of thalli associated with reproductive maturation.
Key words: bioremediation; IMTA; integrated multi-trophic aquaculture; nutrient removal; Palmaria

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